To investigate their potential for phytoremediation, selected agricultural and indigenous terrestrial plants were examined fortheir capacity to accumulate and degrade the explosive octahydro-1 ,3,5,7-tetra nitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). Plant tissue and soil extracts were analyzed for the presence of HMX and possible degradative metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array UV detection (HPLC-UV), micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode-array UV detection (MEKC-UV), and HPLC with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The pattern of HMX accumulation for alfalfa (Medicago sativa), bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), canola (Brassica rapa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and perennial ryegrass (Loliumperenne) grown in a controlled environment on contaminated soil from an anti-tank firing range was similar to that observed for plants (wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), western wheat grass (Agropyron smithii), brome grass (Bromus sitchensis), koeleria (Koeleria gracilis), goldenrod (Solidago sp.), blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), anemone (Anemone sp.), common thistle (Circium vulgare), wax-berry (Symphoricarpos albus), western sage (Artemisia gnaphalodes), and Drummond's milk vetch (Astragalus drummondii)) collected from the range. No direct evidence of plant-mediated HMX (bio)chemical transformation was provided by the available analytical methods. Traces of mononitroso-HMX were found in contaminated soil extracts and were also observed in leaf extracts. The dominant mechanism for HMX translocation and accumulation in foliar tissue was concluded to be aqueous transpirational flux and evaporation. The accumulation of HMX in the leaves of most of the selected species to levels significantly above soil concentration is relevant to the assessment of both phytoremediation potential and environmental risks.