Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) continue to gain increasing attention in the materials community as sustainable nanoparticles with unique chemical and mechanical properties. Their nanoscale dimensions, biocompatibility, biodegradability, large surface area, and low toxicity make them promising materials for biomedical applications. Here, we disclose a facile synthesis of poly(2-aminoethylmethacrylate) (poly(AEM)) and poly(N-(2-aminoethylmethacrylamide) (poly(AEMA)) CNC brushes via the surface-initiated single-electron-transfer living radical polymerization technique. The resulting modified CNCs were characterized for their chemical and morphological features using a combination of analytical, spectroscopic, and microscopic techniques. Zeta potential measurements indicated a positive surface charge, and further proof of the cationic nature was confirmed by gold deposition as evidenced by electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of these cationic modified CNCs was evaluated utilizing a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in two different cell lines, J774A1 (mouse monocyte cells) and MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma cells). The results indicated that none of the cationic modified CNCs decreased cell viability at low concentrations, which could be suitable for biomedical applications.