19th International Symposium on Ice, 6-11 July 2008, Vancouver, BC
A crushing apparatus incorporating the novel characteristics of the apparatus used by Gagnon and Bugden (2007), and fabricated at 3 times the scale, has been used to conduct crushing experiments on polycrystalline ice, large single crystals of ice and iceberg ice at -10°C. The results confirmed that the behaviours of the different ice types were essentially invariant for the change of scale and that the apparatus functioned as intended at the larger scale, that is, it provided visual data of a 2-D slice of ice during crushing as though it was part of a larger piece of ice. Rectangular thick sections (3 cm thickness) of ice were confined between two thick borosilicate glass plates and crushed from one edge face at a rate in the range 1.5 - 2.5 cm/s using a transparent acrylic platen (3 cm thickness) inserted between the plates. Three identical pressure sensors, of the same type used before, were placed side-by-side to measure pressure across the full breadth of the platen/ice contact area between the glass plates as the samples were being crushed. The pressure data corroborated with the smaller-scale pressure data from the earlier tests and the apparatus served as a test bed to demonstrate that the pressure-sensing technology could function effectively in the side-by-side configuration. This technology will be used to obtain high spatial resolution pressure data during an upcoming full-scale study of ship / bergy bit impacts within the next few years.
19th International Symposium on Ice [Proceedings].