Recombinant retroviruses are now an established tool for gene delivery. Presently they are mainly produced using adherent cells. However, due to the restrictive nature of adherent cell culture, this mode of production is hampered by low cell‐specific productivity and small production units. The large‐scale production of retroviral vectors could benefit from the adaptation of retrovirus packaging cell lines to suspension culture. Here, we describe the ability of a 293 packaging cell line to produce retroviral vectors in suspension culture at high titer. Adherent 293GPG cells, producing a Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMLV) retrovirus vector pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSVG) envelope protein and expressing a TK‐GFP fusion protein, were adapted to suspension culture in calcium‐free DMEM. At a cell density similar to adherent cell culture, the suspension culture produced retroviral vector consistently in the range of 1 × 107 infectious viral particles/mL (IVP/mL), with a specific productivity threefold higher than adherent culture. Furthermore, at the same medium replacement frequency, the suspension producer cells could be cultured at higher density than their adherent counterparts, which resulted in virus titer of 3–4 × 107 IVP/mL at 11.0 × 106 cells/mL. This corresponds to a 10‐fold increase in viral concentration compared to adherent cells. The capacity to up scale the retroviral vector production was also demonstrated by performing a 2 VVD perfusion culture for 9 days in a 3L Chemap bioreactor. The combination of suspension and perfusion led to a 20‐fold increase in maximum virus productivity compared to the adherent culture.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering95, no. 4: 653–660.
DA - 20061003IS - 0006-3592 (Print)LA - engPT - Journal ArticlePT - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tRN - 0 (Viral Envelope Proteins)SB - IM