National Research Council of Canada. NRC Biotechnology Research Institute
Forty-one phase diagrams and fifteen sand column experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of three types of washing solutions to recover trichloroethylene (TCE) at residual saturation and to identify the recovery mechanisms involved. This study demonstrates that: (1) an alcohol and a surfactant combination is more efficient than an alcohol used alone in water; (2) the prediction of the dominant recovery mechanism from the tie line slopes in phase diagram is accurate and can be reproduced in sand column experiments; and (3) TCE recovery efficiency in sand column experiments is generally well represented by the position of the miscibility curve in phase diagrams in the low concentration range. However, the miscibility curve alone is not sufficient to exactly predict the TCE recovery mechanisms involved. Tie line slopes and the critical tie line have to be taken into consideration to select the active matter as well as its concentration and to predict the dominant recovery mechanism in sand column experiments. The sand column experiments quantified the recovery efficiency of each solution and identified the proportion of the recovery mechanisms (mobilisation vs. solubilisation). Washing solutions with an active matter concentration above the critical tie line caused dominating mobilisation. Mobilisation was also dominant when the active matter of the washing solution partitioned into the organic phase and the active matter concentration was below the critical tie line. Solubilisation and emulsification were dominant for washing solutions containing active matter, which principally partitioned into the aqueous phase and an active matter concentration below the critical tie line. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology71, no. 1-4: 155–192.