National Research Council of Canada. Human Health Therapeutics
active avoidance; aluminium; Alzheimer′s disease; brain; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; neurotoxicity
Background & objectives: Aluminum (Al) toxicity is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This experimental study was aimed to investigate the active avoidance behaviour of rats after intrahippocampal injection of Al, and biochemical and immunohistochemical changes in three bilateral brain structures namely, forebrain cortex (FBCx), hippocampus and basal forebrain (BF). Methods: Seven days after intra-hippocampal (CA1 sector) injection of AlCl 3 into adult male Wistar rats they were subjected to two-way active avoidance (AA) tests over five consecutive days. Control rats were treated with 0.9% w/v saline. The animals were decapitated on the day 12 post-injection. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were measured in the FBCx, hippocampus and BF. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for transferrin receptors, amyloid β and tau protein. Results: The activities of both AChE and G6PDH were found to be decreased bilaterally in the FBCx, hippocampus and basal forebrain compared to those of control rats. The number of correct AA responses was reduced by AlCl 3 treatment. G6PDH administered prior to AlCl 3 resulted in a reversal of the effects of AlCl 3 on both biochemical and behavioural parameters. Strong immunohistochemical staining of transferrin receptors was found bilaterally in the FBCx and the hippocampus in all three study groups. In addition, very strong amyloid β staining was detected bilaterally in all structures in AlCl 3 -treated rats but was moderate in G6PDH/AlCl 3 -treated rats. Strong tau staining was noted bilaterally in AlCl 3 -treated rats. In contrast, tau staining was only moderate in G6PDH/AlCl 3 -treated rats. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that the G6PDH alleviated the signs of behavioural and biochemical effects of AlCl 3 -treatment suggesting its involvement in the pathogenesis of Al neurotoxicity and its potential therapeutic benefit. The present model could serve as a useful tool in AD investigations.
Indian Journal of Medical Research139, no. 6 (2 August 2014): 864–872.