ASME Turbo Expo 2017: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, 26-30 June 2017, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
The effects of altitude and fuel composition on gaseous and particle emissions from a turbojet engine were investigated as part of the National Jet Fuels Combustion Program (NJFCP) effort. Two conventional petroleum based jet fuels (a “nominal” and a “worst-case” jet fuel) and two test fuels with unique characteristics were selected for this study. The “worst-case” conventional jet fuel with high flash point and viscosity resulted in reduced combustion efficiency supported by the reduced CO2 emissions and corresponding increased CO and THC emissions. In addition, increased particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), and black carbon (BC) emissions were observed. Operating the engine on a bimodal fuel, composed of heavily branched C12 and C16 iso-paraffinic hydrocarbons with an extremely low cetane number did not significantly impact the engine performance or gaseous emissions but significantly reduced PN, PM, and BC emissions when compared to other fuels. The higher aromatic content and lower hydrogen content in the C-5 fuel were observed to increase PN, PM, and BC emissions. It is also evident that the type of aromatic hydrocarbons has a large impact on BC emissions. Reduction in combustion efficiency resulted in reduced CO2 emissions and increased CO and THC emissions from this engine with increasing altitudes. PN emissions were moderately influenced by altitude but PM and BC emissions were significantly reduced with increasing altitude. The reduced BC emissions with increasing altitude could be a result of reduced combustion temperature which lowered the rate of pyrolysis for BC formation, which is supported by the NOx reduction trend.
ASME Turbo Expo 2017: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition. Volume 4A: Combustion, Fuels and Emissions, GT2017-63131: V04AT04A007–.