A facile electrochemical anodization method was used for producing hierarchically textured surfaces based on TiO2 nanotubes in two different configurations. It was found that perfluoro-functionalized TiO2 nanotubes exhibit high static contact angles for a variety of liquids such as apolar, polar aprotic and polar protic solvents. Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter theories were applied for theoretical contact angle calculations for the present study. By using Cassie theories, it is shown that a drop of polar liquid was in a fakir or Cassie-Baxter (CB) state on perfluoro-functionalized nanotube surfaces. The fakir state prevents spreading of the liquid on the surface. On the other hand, the wetting of non-polar liquids such as hexane is characterized by either Wenzel states or transition states characterized by partial imbibition that lie in between the CB and Wenzel states.
ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Proceedings (IMECE)9 (14 October 2014).