ice strength; iceberg; freshwater ice; temperature
Based on literature results, the temperature of an iceberg around the GrandBanks of Newfoundland is shown to vary from about 0°C at the water-ice interface to approximately -20°C in the interior. This temperature variation affects the strength of the ice. Are view of the strength of iceberg ice shows that its uniaxial compressive strength is 1.7 times less than other freshwater ice at a strain-rate of 10-3s-1, probably due to pre-existing healed cracks or flaws. Using an activation energy of 80kJ/mol., the uniaxial compressive strength of iceberg ice is shown to vary from 5 MPa at 0°C near the surface, to 8.5 MPa at-20°C,10-20m inside the iceberg.
Cold Regions Science and Technology47, no. 3 (2007): 256–262.