12th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering Under Arctic Conditions, 17-20 August 1993, Hamburg, Germany
ice resistance; lateral pressure; model tests
The resistance of a ship proceeding in level ice is the result of a combination of ice breaking processes. Foremost is the interaction of the hull with the ice resulting in the failure of the ice sheet. This process involves a combination of ice crushing and shearing until sufficient contact area is generated to fail the ice sheet by flexure. The resistance is the time average of these processes and thus depends on the energy consumed by them. By examining the energy during interaction of an inclined indenter with a simple ice wedge certain ice scaling laws have been derived. The influence of hull-ice friction is also examined. Finally, results are presented showing the energy balance for typical ice breaking conditions.