National Research Council of Canada. Ocean, Coastal and River Engineering
22nd IAHR International Symposium on Ice, August 11 to 15, 2014, Singapore
Ice of many forms grows annually on rivers, lakes and the sea, and as a consequence can interact with hydrotechnical or coastal structures, generating forces on them. These forces must be appropriately assessed and accounted for in the design of structures in water bodies affected by ice. Ice conditions such as thickness, strength, morphology and floe size influence ice forces and must be characterized and suitable extreme values of these features determined. The environmental driving forces of wind, current and temperature must also be understood. Information on ice conditions and environmental factors are combined to provide guidance on calculating the magnitude of ice forces that a structure might be expected to withstand over its lifetime. Various national and international standards and codes that provide guidance on ice forces have been introduced and a high level overview of determining ice loads provided. Areas that would benefit from further research include; investigation of compressive strength of ice for rates greater than 10-3 s-1, the relation between rate effects in laboratory tests and rate in ice loading of structures, and analytical work to implement ice constitutive relations into the nonuniform stress states of ice indentation.
Proceedings of the 22nd IAHR International Symposium on Ice (2014): 19–27.