Using the experimental model of partial hepatectomy in the rat, we have examined the relationship between cell division and lipid peroxidation activity. In rats entrained to a regime of 12 h light/12 h dark and with a fixed 8 h feeding period in the dark phase, partial hepatectomy is followed by a rapid regeneration of liver mass with cycles of synchronized cell division at 24 h intervals. The latter phenomenon is indicated in this study by pulses of thymidine kinase activity having maxima at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after partial hepatectomy. Microsomes prepared from regenerating livers show changes in lipid peroxidation activity (induced by NADPH/ADP/iron or by ascorbate/iron), which is significantly decreased relative to that in microsomes from sham-operated controls, again at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after the operation. This phenomenon has been investigated with regard to possible underlying changes in the content of microsomal fatty acids, the microsomal enzymes NADPH:cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome P-450, and the physiological microsomal antioxidant α-tocopherol. The cycles of decreased lipid peroxidation activity are apparently due, at least in part, to changes in microsomal α-tocopherol content that are closely associated in time with thymidine kinase activity.