Key Message: Tetraploidy improves overexpression of h6h and scopolamine production of H. muticus, while in H. senecionis, pmt overexpression and elicitation can be used as effective methods for increasing tropane alkaloids. Abstract: The effects of metabolic engineering in a polyploid context were studied by overexpression of h6h in the tetraploid hairy root cultures of H. muticus. Flow cytometry analysis indicated genetic stability in the majority of the clones, while only a few clones showed genetic instability. Among all the diploid and tetraploid clones, the highest level of h6h transgene expression and scopolamine accumulation was interestingly observed in the tetraploid clones of H. muticus. Therefore, metabolic engineering of the tropane biosynthetic pathway in polyploids is suggested as a potential system for increasing the production of tropane alkaloids. Transgenic hairy root cultures of Hyoscyamus senecionis were also established. While overexpression of pmt in H. senecionis was correlated with a sharp increase in hyoscyamine production, the h6h-overexpressing clones were not able to accumulate higher levels of scopolamine than the leaves of intact plants. Applying methyl jasmonate was followed by a sharp increase in the expression of pmt and a drop in the expression of tropinone reductase II (trII) which consequently resulted in the higher biosynthesis of hyoscyamine and total alkaloids in H. senecionis.