By 2100, the mean air temperature at the Earth’s surface is predicted to increase by 1.4 °C to 5.8 °C, with a disproportionate effect at high altitudes and latitudes. This chapter reviews the currently available information regarding the responses of key microbial parameters, including diversity, community composition, abundance and functions, to climate change in Antarctic soils. For microorganisms inhabiting Antarctic soils, some insight has been gained by comparing microbial communities across latitudinal gradients, or through short-term laboratory incubations and field studies. Rapid responses of mosses, nematodes, soil algae, cyanobacteria, fungi, and bacteria have been observed in some Antarctic soils. Despite these interesting findings, it is difficult to specifically predict the effects of warming on Antarctic soil microorganisms. One reason is the extreme heterogeneity of soil habitats in this region, as they vary from moist eutrophic ornithogenic soils to nutrient- and water-limited Dry Valley soils. Climate change might have rapid and direct effects on soil microbes that are not otherwise limited, but the release of other limitations (e.g., water, nutrients) could be more important in several environments.