The influence of harmonics on commonly used three-phase watthour and kVA demand meters was studied using a computer-controlled three-phase test system capable of generating nonsinusoidal voltages and currents. A description of the three-phase test system and results of preliminary tests of several revenue meters are presented. The performance of the tested meters is compared with the response of time-division and thermal reference meters for different harmonic conditions, primarily field-recorded data. Errors up to 2% were observed during the testing of energy meters and up to 35% for kVA demand meters.
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery3, no. 3: 874–879.